Algorithmic information theory A description of a piece of data can always be thought of as some kind of program for reproducing the data. So if one could find the shortest program that works then this must correspond to the shortest possible description of the dataand in algorithmic information theory if this is no shorter than the data itself then the data is considered to be algorithmically random. How long the shortest program is for a given piece of data will in general depend on what system is supposed to run the program. But in a sense the program will on the whole be as short as possible if the system is universal (see page 642). And between any two universal systems programs can differ in length by at most a constant: for one can always just add a fixed interpreter program to the programs for one system in order to make them run on the other system. As mentioned in the main text, any data generated by a simple program can by definition never be algorithmically random. And so even though algorithmic randomness is often considered in theoretical discussions (see note below) it cannot be directly relevant to the kind of randomness we see in so many systems in this bookor, I believe, in nature. If one considers all 2^^{n} possible sequences (say of 0's and 1's) of length n then it is straightforward to see that most of them must be more or less algorithmically random. For in order to have enough programs to generate all 2^^{n} sequences most of the programs one uses must themselves be close to length n. (In practice there are subtleties associated with the encoding of programs that make this hold only for sufficiently large n.) But even though one knows that almost all long sequences must be algorithmically random, it turns out to be undecidable in general whether any particular sequence is algorithmically random. For in general one can give no upper limit to how much computational effort one might have to expend in order to find out whether any given short programafter any number of stepswill generate the sequence one wants. But even though one can never expect to construct them explicitly, one can still give formal descriptions of sequences that are algorithmically random. An example due to Gregory Chaitin is the digits of the fraction Ω of initial conditions for which a universal system halts (essentially a compressed versionwith various subtleties about limitsof the sequence from page 1127 giving the outcome for each initial condition). As emphasized by Chaitin, it is possible to ask questions purely in arithmetic (say about sequences of values of a parameter that yield infinite numbers of solutions to an integer equation) whose answers would correspond to algorithmically random sequences. (See page 786.) As a reduced analog of algorithmic information theory one can for example ask what the simplest cellular automaton rule is that will generate a given sequence if started from a single black cell. Page 1186 gives some results, and suggests that sequences which require more complicated cellular automaton rules do tend to look to us more complicated and more random.
