# SOME HISTORICAL NOTES
The last 350 pages of *A New Kind of Science* contain 1350 notes covering a wide range of issues. About 150 of those notes are primarily historical.
Given here are a few such notes of particularly general interest. Almost every note is based on extensive historical research and scholarship.
At a future date, we may attempt to make available Dr. Wolfram's primary research materials. Scholars who wish to have further information now
about specific points in the notes may contact us.
**Notes for Chapter 1: The Foundations for a New Kind of Science** Mathematics in science | History of programs and nature | Complexity and theology | Complexity and science
**Notes for Chapter 2: The Crucial Experiment** The concept of rules | Atomism | History of cellular automata | Close approaches | My work on cellular automata
**Notes for Chapter 3: The World of Simple Programs** History of experimental mathematics
**Notes for Chapter 4: Systems Based on Numbers** History of numbers | History of primes | History of number theory | History of iterated maps
**Notes for Chapter 5: Two Dimensions and Beyond** History [of 2D cellular automata] | History of fractals
**Notes for Chapter 6: Starting From Randomness** History [of emergence of order] | History [of finite automata]
**Notes for Chapter 7: Mechanisms in Programs and Nature** History [of universality of behavior] | History [of randomness] | Sources of randomness | History of chaos theory | Three-body problem
**Notes for Chapter 8: Implications for Everyday Systems** History of snowflake studies | History of crystal growth | Navier-Stokes equations | Models of turbulence | Chaos theory and turbulence | History [of biological complexity] | History [of theoretical biology] | History [of shell models] | History of embryology | Parametrizations of growth | History [of shell patterns] | Randomness in markets | Models of markets
**Notes for Chapter 9: Fundamental Physics** History of thermodynamics | History of ultimate models | Mechanistic models | History of discrete space | Space and its contents | History [of the relationship of space and time] | Causal networks | History of relativity | History [of elementary particles] | History [of gravity theory] | Discrete spaces | Pure gravity | Quantum gravity | History [of quantum theory] | Quantum field theory | Vacuum fluctuations | Quantum measurement
**Notes for Chapter 10: Processes of Perception and Analysis** History [of defining randomness] | History [of defining complexity] | History [of data compression] | History [of irreversible data compression] | History [of visual perception] | History [of statistics] | History [of cryptography] | Standard mathematical functions | History [of logic] | History [of ideas about thinking] | Neural network models | Languages
**Notes for Chapter 11: The Notion of Computation** History of computing | History of universality | History [of universal 1D cellular automata] | [Universality in] 2D cellular automata
**Notes for Chapter 12: The Principle of Computational Equivalence** Church’s Thesis | Continuum and cardinality | Continuous computation | Constructible reals | History [of computational irreducibility] | Exact solutions | History [of free will] | History [of undecidability] | Mathematical impossibilities | History [of foundations of math] | Models of mathematics | Hilbert's tenth problem | Diophantine equations | Generalization in mathematics | Logic in languages | Empirical metamathematics | Defining intelligence | Defining life | History [of extraterrestrial intelligence] | Theories of communication | Mathematical notation | Forms of artifacts | Purpose in archeology | Teleology | SETI | Messages to send | Science fiction | Applications of randomness | Searching for technology | Chemistry | Animism | Universe as intelligent | Philosophical implications |