## Universality in Turing Machines and Other Systems

From the results of the previous few sections [8, 9, 10, 11], we now have some idea where the threshold for universality lies in cellular automata. But what about other kinds of systems—like Turing machines? How complicated do the rules need to be in order to get universality?

In the 1950s and early 1960s a certain amount of work was done on trying to construct small Turing machines that would be universal. The main achievement of this work was the construction of the universal machine with 7 states and 4 possible colors shown below.