# Index of Names

Tang, Chao (USA, 1958– )

and self-organized criticality, 989

Tarski, Alfred (Poland/USA, 1902–1983)

and axioms for geometry, 1154

and axioms for groups, 1153

and axioms for predicate logic, 1152

and real algebra, 1154

and undecidability of group theory, 1159

Tesla, Nikola (USA, 1856–1943)

and SETI, 1188, 1189

Theophrastus (Greece, ~371 – ~287 BC)

and shapes of leaves, 1005

Thom, René F. (France, 1923–[2002])

in Preface, xiii

and structure in animals, 1009

and theoretical biology, 1004

Thompson, D'Arcy W. (Scotland, 1860–1948)

and forms in nature, 967

and growth processes, 1010

and leaf shapes, 1006

and theoretical biology, 1004

Thue, Axel (Norway, 1863–1922)

and circle packings, 985

and Diophantine equations, 1164

and multiway systems, 938

and substitution systems, 879, 893

and word problem for semigroups, 1141

Tippett, Leonard H. C. (England, 1902–1985)

and random number tables, 968

Toffoli, Tommaso (Italy/USA, 1943– )

and 2D CA simulators, 928

and 2D cellular automata, 880

in Preface, xiii

Toom, Andrei (Russia/USA, 1942– )

and transitions in CAs, 981

Truchet, Sébastien (Jean) (France, 1657–1729)

and patterns from rules, 875

Turing, Alan M. (England, 1912–1954)

and animal pigmentation, 1012

and artificial intelligence, 1099

and computable numbers, 1128, 1137

computer programs of, 1013

and continuous computation, 1128

and defining computability, 1125

and diagonal arguments, 1128

and history of computers, 1107

and oracles, 1126

and origins of universality, 1110

and reaction-diffusion, 1012

and theoretical biology, 879, 1004

and Turing machines, 879, 889

and undecidability, 1136

and undecidability of word problem, 1141

and universal TM, 1119

Tylor, Edward B. (England, 1832–1917)

and animism, 1195

Ulam, Stanislaw M. (Poland/USA, 1909–1984)

and CAs, 876, 877, 879

and generalized CAs, 928

and iterated maps, 918

in Preface, xiii

and Ulam sequences, 908

Urey, Harold C. (USA, 1893–1981)

and origin of life, 1179

van der Corput, Johannes G. (Netherlands, 1890–1975)

and digit reversal sequences, 905

van der Pol, Balthazar (Netherlands, 1889–1959)

and history of chaos, 971

van der Poorten, Alfred J. (Australia, 1942–[2010])

and nested digit sequences, 913

Venn, John (England, 1834–1923)

and randomness in digits of π, 879, 912

Vigenère, Blaise de (France, 1523–1596)

and ciphers, 1085

Vinogradov, Ivan M. (Russia, 1891–1983)

and Goldbach's Conjecture, 911

von Kármán, Theodore (Hungary/Germany/USA, 1881–1963)

and vortex streets, 998

von Koch, N. F. Helge (Sweden, 1870–1924)

and nested curves, 934

von Neumann, John (Hungary/USA, 1903–1957)

and CAs, 876, 879, 928

and computers, 1108

and history of complexity, 862

and iterated maps, 919

and random generators, 975

and self-reproduction, 1179

and set theory, 1154

and thermodynamics of computation, 1020

and universal CAs, 1117

and use of universality, 1110

Voronin, Sergei M. (Russia, 1946–[1997])

and zeta function universality, 918

Waddington, Conrad H. (England/Scotland, 1905–1975)

and patterns on shells, 1012

Wainwright, Thomas E. (USA, 1927–[2007])

and molecular dynamics, 879, 999

Wajsberg, Mordechaj (Poland, 1902 – ~1940)

and axioms for logic, 1151

Walker, Crayton C. (USA, 1932– )

and Boolean networks, 936

Walras, M. E. Léon (France, 1834–1910)

and math economics, 1015

Walsh, Joseph L. (USA, 1895–1973)

and Walsh transforms, 1073

Wang, Hao (China/USA, 1921–1995)

and lag systems, 894

and tag systems, 1120

and undecidability in tiling, 1139

Waring, Edward (England, 1736–1798)

and Waring's Problem, 910

Weaire, Denis L. (Ireland, 1942– )

and minimum area packings, 988

in Preface, xiii

Weierstrass, Karl T. W. (Germany, 1815–1897)

and nested curves, 918, 934

Weizsäcker, Carl F. v. (Germany, 1912–[2007])

and discreteness of space, 1027

Welch, Terry A. (USA, 1939–1988)

and data compression, 1069

Wells, Herbert G. (England, 1866–1946)

and time travel, 1031

Weyl, Hermann K. H. (Germany/Switzerland/USA, 1885–1955)

and gauge invariance, 1045

and gauge theories of space, 1028

Wheeler, John A. (USA, 1911–[2008])

and discreteness of space, 1027

and geons, 1054

Whitehead, Alfred N. (England/USA, 1861–1947)

and axioms for logic, 1151

and foundations of math, 1149

and math in science, 859

and *Principia Mathematica*, 894

and universal algebra, 1150

Whorf, Benjamin L. (USA, 1897–1941)

and language and thinking, 1181

Wiener, Harry (USA, 1924–1998)

and alkane boiling points, 1195

Wiener, Norbert (USA, 1894–1964)

and history of complexity, 862

and reaction-diffusion, 1013

Wiesenfeld, Kurt A. (USA, 1958– )

and self-organized criticality, 989

Wiles, Andrew J. (England/USA, 1953– )

and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166

Winfree, Arthur T. (USA, 1942–[2002])

and reaction-diffusion, 1013

Wisdom, Jack L. (USA, 1953– )

and chaos in solar system, 973

in Preface, xiii

Witten, Thomas A., Jr. (USA, 1944– )

and diffusion-limited aggregation, 994

Wittgenstein, Ludwig J. J. (Austria/England, 1889–1951)

and philosophy of language, 1181

and truth tables, 1170

Wolpert, Lewis (England, 1929– )

and embryology, 1010

in Preface, xiii

Worthington, Arthur M. (England, 1852–1916), 1000

Wren, Christopher (England, 1632–1723)

and shapes of shells, 1008

Young, David A. (USA, 1942– )

and pigmentation patterns, 1012

Young, Thomas (England, 1773–1829)

and color vision, 1075

Zermelo, Ernst F. F. (Germany, 1871–1953)

and set theory, 1154

Zhabotinsky, Anatol M. (Russia/USA, 1938–[2008])

and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013

Zipf, George K. (USA, 1902–1950)

and Zipf's law, 1014

Ziv, Jacob (Israel, 1931– )

and data compression, 1069

Zuse, Konrad (Germany, 1910–1995)

and universe as CA, 1026