Chapter 5: Two Dimensions and Beyond

Section 7: Systems Based on Constraints

Identifying the 171 patterns [that satisfy 2D constraints]

The number of constraints to consider can be reduced by symmetries, by discarding sets of templates that are supersets of ones already known to be satisfiable, and by requiring that each template in the set be compatible with itself or with at least one other in each of the eight immediately adjacent positions. The remaining constraints can then be analyzed by attempting to build up explicit patterns that satisfy them, as discussed below.

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]