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With this setup, a network consisting of just one node is {{1, 1}} and a 1D array of n nodes can be obtained with CyclicNet[n_] := RotateRight[ Table[Mod[{i - 1, i + 1}, n] + 1, {i, n}]] With above connections represented as 1 and the below connections as 2 , the node reached by following a succession s of connections from node i is given by Follow[list_, i_, s_List] := Fold[list 〚 #1 〛 〚 #2 〛 &, i, s] The total number of distinct nodes reached by following all possible succession of connections up to length d is given by NeighborNumbers[list_, i_Integer, d_Integer] := Map[Length, NestList[Union[Flatten[list 〚 # 〛 ]] &, Union[list 〚 i 〛 ], d - 1]] For each such list the rules for the network system then specify how the connections from node i should be rerouted.
CTToR110[rules_ /; Select[rules, Mod[Length[#], 6] ≠ 0 &]  {}, init_] := Module[{g1, g2, g3, nr = 0, x1, y1, sp}, g1 = Flatten[ Map[If[#1 === {}, {{{2}}}, {{{1, 3, 5 - First[#1]}}, Table[ {4, 5 - # 〚 n 〛 }, {n, 2, Length[#]}]}] &, rules] /. a_Integer  Map[({d[# 〚 1 〛 , # 〚 2 〛 ], s[# 〚 3 〛 ]}) &, Partition[c[a], 3]], 4]; g2 = g1 = MapThread[If[#1 === #2 === {d[22, 11], s3}, {d[ 20, 8], s3}, #1] &, {g1, RotateRight[g1, 6]}]; While[Mod[ Apply[Plus, Map[# 〚 1, 2 〛 &, g2, 30] ≠ 0, nr++; g2 = Join[ g2, g1]]; y1 = g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 - 11; If[y1 < 0, y1 += 30]; Cases[ Last[g2] 〚 2 〛 , s[d[x_, y1], _, _, a_]  (x1 = x + Length[a])]; g3 = Fold[sadd, {d[x1, y1], {}}, g2]; sp = Ceiling[5 Length[ g3 〚 2 〛 ]/(28 nr) + 2]; {Join[Fold[sadd, {d[17, 1], {}}, Flatten[Table[{{d[sp 28 + 6, 1], s[5]}, {d[398, 1], s[5]}, { d[342, 1], s[5]}, {d[370, 1], s[5]}}, {3}], 1]] 〚 2 〛 , bg[ 4, 11]], Flatten[Join[Table[bgi, {sp 2 + 1 + 24 Length[init]}], init /. {0  init0, 1  init1}, bg[1, 9], bg[6, 60 - g2 〚 1, 1, 1 〛 + g3 〚 1, 1 〛 + If[g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 < g3 〚 1, 2 〛 , 8, 0]]]], g3 〚 2 〛 }] s[1] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4, 8}, 2]; s[2] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 1, 619, 15}, 2]; s[3] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4956, 18}, 2]; s[4] = struct[{0, 0, 9, 10, 4, 8}]; s[5] = struct[{5, 0, 9, 14, 1, 1}]; {c[1], c[2]} = Map[Join[{22, 11, 3, 39, 3, 1}, #] &, {{63, 12, 2, 48, 5, 4, 29, 26, 4, 43, 26, 4, 23, 3, 4, 47, 4, 4}, {87, 6, 2, 32, 2, 4, 13, 23, 4, 27, 16, 4}}]; {c[3], c[4], c[5]} = Map[Join[#, {4, 17, 22, 4, 39, 27, 4, 47, 4, 4}] &, {{17, 22, 4, 23, 24, 4, 31, 29}, {17, 22, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}, {41, 16, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}}] {init0, init1} = Map[IntegerDigits[216 (# + 432 10 49 ), 2] &, {246005560154658471735510051750569922628065067661, 1043746165489466852897089830441756550889834709645}] bgi = IntegerDigits[9976, 2] bg[s_, n_] := Array[bgi 〚 1 + Mod[# - 1, 14] 〛 &, n, s] ev[s[d[x_, y_], pl_, pr_, b_]] := Module[{r, pl1, pr1}, r = Sign[BitAnd[2^ListConvolve[{1, 2, 4}, Join[bg[pl - 2, 2], b, bg[pr, 2]]], 110]]; pl1 = (Position[r - bg[pl + 3, Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{Length[r]}}) 〚 1, 1 〛 ; pr1 = Max[pl1, (Position[r - bg[pr + 5 - Length[r], Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{1}}) 〚 -1, 1 〛 ]; s[d[x + pl1 - 2, y + 1], pl1 + Mod[pl + 2, 14], 1 + Mod[pr + 4, 14] + pr1 - Length[r], Take[r, {pl1, pr1}]]] struct[{x_, y_, pl_, pr_, b_, bl_}, p_Integer : 1] := Module[ {gr = s[d[x, y], pl, pr, IntegerDigits[b, 2, bl]], p2 = p + 1}, Drop[NestWhile[Append[#, ev[Last[#]]] &, {gr}, If[Rest[Last[#]] === Rest[gr], p2--]; p2 > 0 &], -1]] sadd[{d[x_, y_], b_}, {d[dx_, dy_], st_}] := Module[{x1 = dx - x, y1 = dy - y, b2, x2, y2}, While[y1 > 0, {x1, y1} += If[Length[st]  30, {8, -30}, {-2, -3}]]; b2 = First[Cases[st, s[d[x3_, -y1], pl_, _, sb_]  Join[bg[pl - x1 - x3, x1 + x3], x2 = x3 + Length[sb]; y2 = -y1; sb]]]; {d[x2, y2], Join[b, b2]}] CTToR110[{{}}, {1}] yields blocks of lengths {7204, 1873, 7088} .
With the state of a 2-color tag system encoded as an integer according to FromDigits[Reverse[list] + 1, 3] the following takes the rule for any such tag system (in the first form from page 894 ) and yields a primitive recursive function that emulates a single step in its evolution: TSToPR[{n_, rule_}] := Fold[Apply[c, Flatten[{#1, Array[p, # 2], c[r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, p[2]], c[r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[2]]], p[1]]], p[#2]]}]] & , c[c[r[p[1], s], p[1], c[r[p[1], r[z, c[s, c[s, s]]]], c[c[r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, c[s, z]], c[r[p[1], r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, p[2]], c[ r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[2]]], p[1]]]], p[2], p[3]]], p[1]]], p[1], p[1]], p[1]], p[2]]], p[n + 1], MapIndexed[c[r[z, c[r[p[1], p[4]], p[2], p[3], p[4]]], c[r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[Length[#2] + 1]], # 1 〚 1 〛 , #1 〚 2 〛 ] & , Nest[Partition[#1, 2] & , Table[Nest[c[s, #] & z, FromDigits[Reverse[IntegerDigits[i, 2, n] /. rule] + 1, 3]], {i, 0, 2 n - 1}], n - 1], {0, n - 1}]], Range[n, 1, -1]] (For tag system (a) from page 94 this yields a primitive recursive function of size 325.)
Fibonacci[n] can be obtained in many ways: • (GoldenRatio n - (-GoldenRatio) -n )/ √ 5 • Round[GoldenRatio n / √ 5 ] • 2 1 - n Coefficient[(1 + √ 5 ) n , √ 5 ] • MatrixPower[{{1, 1}, {1, 0}}, n - 1] 〚 1, 1 〛 • Numerator[NestList[1/(1 + #)&, 1, n]] • Coefficient[Series[1/(1 - t - t 2 ), {t, 0, n}], t n - 1 ] • Sum[Binomial[n - i - 1, i], {i, 0, (n - 1)/2}] • 2 n - 2 - Count[IntegerDigits[Range[0, 2 n - 2 ], 2], {___, 1, 1, ___}] A fast method for evaluating Fibonacci[n] is First[Fold[f, {1, 0, -1}, Rest[IntegerDigits[n, 2]]]] f[{a_, b_, s_}, 0] = {a (a + 2b), s + a (2a - b), 1} f[{a_, b_, s_}, 1] = {-s + (a + b) (a + 2b), a (a + 2b), -1} Fibonacci numbers appear to have first arisen in perhaps 200 BC in work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of poetry formed from syllables of two lengths.
Every point in the pattern must correspond to some list of left and right branchings, represented by 0's and 1's respectively; in terms of this list the position of the point is given by Fold[1 + {c, Conjugate[c]} 〚 1 + #2 〛 #1&, 1, Reverse[list]] .
To next order the result is s[d] r d (1 - RicciScalar r 2 /(6(d + 2)) + (5 RicciScalar 2 - 3 RiemannNorm + 8 RicciNorm - 18 Laplacian[RicciScalar])r 4 /(360 (d + 2)(d + 4)) + …) where the new quantities involved are RicciNorm = Norm[RicciTensor, {g, g}] RiemannNorm = Norm[Riemann, {g, g, g, Inverse[g]}] Norm[t_, gl_] := Tr[Flatten[t Dual[t, gl]]] Dual[t_, gl_]:= Fold[Transpose[#1 .
Starting with a list of nodes, the nodes reached by following arcs with value a for one step are given by NetStep[net_, i_, a_] := Union[ReplaceList[a, Flatten[net 〚 i 〛 ]]] A list of values then corresponds to a path in the network starting from any node if Fold[NetStep[net, #1, #2]&, Range[Length[net]], list] =!
And in general if h is associative the result Nest[h[r, #]&, s, t] of t steps of evolution can be rewritten for example using the repeated squaring method as h[Fold[If[#2  0, h[#1, #1], h[r, h[#1, #1]]] &, r, Rest[IntegerDigits[t, 2]]], s] which requires only about Log[t] rather than t applications of h .
With the development of lambda calculus in the early 1930s it became clear that given any expression expr such as x[y[x][z]] with a list of variables vars such as {x, y, z} one can always find a combinator equivalent to a lambda function such as Function[x, Function[y, Function[z, x[y[x][z]]]]] , and it turns out that this can be done simply using ToC[expr_, vars_] := Fold[rm, expr, Reverse[vars]] rm[v_, v_] = id rm[f_[v_], v_] /; FreeQ[f, v] = f rm[h_, v_] /; FreeQ[h, v] = k[h] rm[f_[g_], v_] := s[rm[f, v]][rm[g, v]] So this shows that any lambda function can in effect be written in terms of combinators, without anything analogous to variables ever explicitly having to be introduced.
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