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And in general if h is associative the result Nest[h[r, #]&, s, t] of t steps of evolution can be rewritten for example using the repeated squaring method as h[Fold[If[#2  0, h[#1, #1], h[r, h[#1, #1]]] &, r, Rest[IntegerDigits[t, 2]]], s] which requires only about Log[t] rather than t applications of h .
At the left-hand end is a version of the pattern of digits from page 117 —but distorted so it has no obvious nested structure.
Probably the simplest is a statement shown to be unprovable in Peano arithmetic by Laurence Kirby and Jeff Paris in 1982: that certain sequences g[n] defined by Reuben Goodstein in 1944 are of limited length for all n , where g[n_] := Map[First, NestWhileList[ {f[#] - 1, Last[#] + 1} &, {n, 3}, First[#] > 0 &]] f[{0, _}] = 0; f[{n_, k_}] := Apply[Plus, MapIndexed[#1 k^f[{#2 〚 1 〛 - 1, k}] &, Reverse[IntegerDigits[n, k - 1]]]] As in the pictures below, g[1] is {1, 0} , g[2] is {2, 2, 1, 0} and g[3] is {3, 3, 3, 2, 1, 0} . g[4] increases quadratically for a long time, with only element 3 × 2 402653211 - 2 finally being 0.
The pictures below show the evolution obtained for n = 30 with NestList[Nest[LFSRStep, #, n]&, Append[Table[0, {n - 1}], 1], t] Like additive cellular automata as discussed on page 951 , states in a linear feedback shift register can be represented by a polynomial FromDigits[list, x] .
In general, the list for a particular rule can be obtained with the function ElementaryRule[num_Integer] := IntegerDigits[num, 2, 8] Given a rule together with a list representing the state a of a cellular automaton at a particular step, the following simple function gives the state at the next step: CAStep[rule_List, a_List] := rule 〚 8 - (RotateLeft[a] + 2 (a + 2 RotateRight[a])) 〛 A list of states corresponding to evolution for t steps can then be obtained with CAEvolveList[rule_, init_List, t_Integer] := NestList[CAStep[rule, #]&, init, t] Graphics of this evolution can be generated using CAGraphics[history_List] := Graphics[ Raster[1 - Reverse[history]], AspectRatio  Automatic] And having set up the definitions above, the Mathematica input Show[CAGraphics[CAEvolveList[ ElementaryRule[30], CenterList[103], 50]]] will generate the image: The description just given should be adequate for most cellular automaton simulations.
But in all cases the general results for associative rules on page 956 show that the patterns obtained must be at most nested.
(An example is NestList[Mod[2 #, 1]&, N[ π /4, 40], 200] ; Map[Precision, list] gives the number of significant digits of each element in the list.)
CTToR110[rules_ /; Select[rules, Mod[Length[#], 6] ≠ 0 &]  {}, init_] := Module[{g1, g2, g3, nr = 0, x1, y1, sp}, g1 = Flatten[ Map[If[#1 === {}, {{{2}}}, {{{1, 3, 5 - First[#1]}}, Table[ {4, 5 - # 〚 n 〛 }, {n, 2, Length[#]}]}] &, rules] /. a_Integer  Map[({d[# 〚 1 〛 , # 〚 2 〛 ], s[# 〚 3 〛 ]}) &, Partition[c[a], 3]], 4]; g2 = g1 = MapThread[If[#1 === #2 === {d[22, 11], s3}, {d[ 20, 8], s3}, #1] &, {g1, RotateRight[g1, 6]}]; While[Mod[ Apply[Plus, Map[# 〚 1, 2 〛 &, g2, 30] ≠ 0, nr++; g2 = Join[ g2, g1]]; y1 = g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 - 11; If[y1 < 0, y1 += 30]; Cases[ Last[g2] 〚 2 〛 , s[d[x_, y1], _, _, a_]  (x1 = x + Length[a])]; g3 = Fold[sadd, {d[x1, y1], {}}, g2]; sp = Ceiling[5 Length[ g3 〚 2 〛 ]/(28 nr) + 2]; {Join[Fold[sadd, {d[17, 1], {}}, Flatten[Table[{{d[sp 28 + 6, 1], s[5]}, {d[398, 1], s[5]}, { d[342, 1], s[5]}, {d[370, 1], s[5]}}, {3}], 1]] 〚 2 〛 , bg[ 4, 11]], Flatten[Join[Table[bgi, {sp 2 + 1 + 24 Length[init]}], init /. {0  init0, 1  init1}, bg[1, 9], bg[6, 60 - g2 〚 1, 1, 1 〛 + g3 〚 1, 1 〛 + If[g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 < g3 〚 1, 2 〛 , 8, 0]]]], g3 〚 2 〛 }] s[1] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4, 8}, 2]; s[2] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 1, 619, 15}, 2]; s[3] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4956, 18}, 2]; s[4] = struct[{0, 0, 9, 10, 4, 8}]; s[5] = struct[{5, 0, 9, 14, 1, 1}]; {c[1], c[2]} = Map[Join[{22, 11, 3, 39, 3, 1}, #] &, {{63, 12, 2, 48, 5, 4, 29, 26, 4, 43, 26, 4, 23, 3, 4, 47, 4, 4}, {87, 6, 2, 32, 2, 4, 13, 23, 4, 27, 16, 4}}]; {c[3], c[4], c[5]} = Map[Join[#, {4, 17, 22, 4, 39, 27, 4, 47, 4, 4}] &, {{17, 22, 4, 23, 24, 4, 31, 29}, {17, 22, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}, {41, 16, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}}] {init0, init1} = Map[IntegerDigits[216 (# + 432 10 49 ), 2] &, {246005560154658471735510051750569922628065067661, 1043746165489466852897089830441756550889834709645}] bgi = IntegerDigits[9976, 2] bg[s_, n_] := Array[bgi 〚 1 + Mod[# - 1, 14] 〛 &, n, s] ev[s[d[x_, y_], pl_, pr_, b_]] := Module[{r, pl1, pr1}, r = Sign[BitAnd[2^ListConvolve[{1, 2, 4}, Join[bg[pl - 2, 2], b, bg[pr, 2]]], 110]]; pl1 = (Position[r - bg[pl + 3, Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{Length[r]}}) 〚 1, 1 〛 ; pr1 = Max[pl1, (Position[r - bg[pr + 5 - Length[r], Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{1}}) 〚 -1, 1 〛 ]; s[d[x + pl1 - 2, y + 1], pl1 + Mod[pl + 2, 14], 1 + Mod[pr + 4, 14] + pr1 - Length[r], Take[r, {pl1, pr1}]]] struct[{x_, y_, pl_, pr_, b_, bl_}, p_Integer : 1] := Module[ {gr = s[d[x, y], pl, pr, IntegerDigits[b, 2, bl]], p2 = p + 1}, Drop[NestWhile[Append[#, ev[Last[#]]] &, {gr}, If[Rest[Last[#]] === Rest[gr], p2--]; p2 > 0 &], -1]] sadd[{d[x_, y_], b_}, {d[dx_, dy_], st_}] := Module[{x1 = dx - x, y1 = dy - y, b2, x2, y2}, While[y1 > 0, {x1, y1} += If[Length[st]  30, {8, -30}, {-2, -3}]]; b2 = First[Cases[st, s[d[x3_, -y1], pl_, _, sb_]  Join[bg[pl - x1 - x3, x1 + x3], x2 = x3 + Length[sb]; y2 = -y1; sb]]]; {d[x2, y2], Join[b, b2]}] CTToR110[{{}}, {1}] yields blocks of lengths {7204, 1873, 7088} .
And second, that in cases like rule 90 simple initial conditions led to nested or fractal patterns.
Extensive algebraic analysis of their behavior was done starting in the mid-1950s, but most of it concentrated on issues like repetition periods, and did not even explicitly uncover nested patterns.
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