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With evolution functions f i and f j the requirement for the emulation to work is f j [a j ]  InverseFunction[ ϕ ][f i [ ϕ [a j ]]] In the main text the encoding function is taken to have the form Flatten[a /. rules] —where rules are say {1  {1, 1}, 0  {0, 0}} —with the result that the decoding function for emulations that work is Partition[ ã , b] /.
(OddQ[Length[#]] &), {2}] (see page 358 ) • Flatten[Table[Map[{t, #} &, Fold[Flatten[{#1, #1 + #2}] &, 0, Flatten[2^(Position[ Reverse[IntegerDigits[t, 2]], 1] - 1)]]], {t, 2 n - 1}], 1] (see page 870 ) • Map[Map[FromDigits[#, 2] &, Transpose[Partition[#, 2]]] &, Position[Nest[{{#, #}, {#}} &, 1, n], 1] - 1] (see page 509 ) A formatting hack giving the same visual pattern is DisplayForm[Nest[SubsuperscriptBox[#, #, #] &, "1", n]]
Given an original DNF list s , this can be done using PI[s, n] : PI[s_, n_] := Union[Flatten[ FixedPointList[f[Last[#], n] &, {{}, s}] 〚 All, 1 〛 , 1]] g[a_, b_] := With[{i = Position[Transpose[{a, b}], {0,1}]}, If[Length[i]  1 && Delete[a, i] === Delete[b, i], {ReplacePart[a, _, i]}, {}]] f[s_, n_] := With[ {w = Flatten[Apply[Outer[g, #1, #2, 1] &, Partition[Table[ Select[s, Count[#, 1]  i &], {i, 0, n}], 2, 1], {1}], 3]}, {Complement[s, w, SameTest  MatchQ], w}] The minimal DNF then consists of a collection of these prime implicants.
However, the nested structure of m in natural order allows evaluation in only about n Log[n] steps using Nest[Flatten[Transpose[Partition[#, 2] . {{1, 1}, {1, -1}}]] &, data, Log[2, Length[data]]] This procedure is similar to the fast Fourier transform discussed below.
With the state of a 2-color tag system encoded as an integer according to FromDigits[Reverse[list] + 1, 3] the following takes the rule for any such tag system (in the first form from page 894 ) and yields a primitive recursive function that emulates a single step in its evolution: TSToPR[{n_, rule_}] := Fold[Apply[c, Flatten[{#1, Array[p, # 2], c[r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, p[2]], c[r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[2]]], p[1]]], p[#2]]}]] & , c[c[r[p[1], s], p[1], c[r[p[1], r[z, c[s, c[s, s]]]], c[c[r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, c[s, z]], c[r[p[1], r[z, c[r[p[1], s], c[r[z, p[2]], c[ r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[2]]], p[1]]]], p[2], p[3]]], p[1]]], p[1], p[1]], p[1]], p[2]]], p[n + 1], MapIndexed[c[r[z, c[r[p[1], p[4]], p[2], p[3], p[4]]], c[r[z, r[c[s, z], c[r[c[s, c[s, z]], z], p[2]]]], p[Length[#2] + 1]], # 1 〚 1 〛 , #1 〚 2 〛 ] & , Nest[Partition[#1, 2] & , Table[Nest[c[s, #] & z, FromDigits[Reverse[IntegerDigits[i, 2, n] /. rule] + 1, 3]], {i, 0, 2 n - 1}], n - 1], {0, n - 1}]], Range[n, 1, -1]] (For tag system (a) from page 94 this yields a primitive recursive function of size 325.)
As early as 1851, for example, Eugène Prouhet showed that if sequences of integers were partitioned according to sequence (b) on page 83 , then sums of powers of these integers would be equal: thus Apply[Plus, Flatten[Position[s, i]] k ] is equal for i = 0 and i = 1 if s is a sequence of the form (b) on page 83 with length 2 m , m > k .
Examples include message routing in networks, retransmission times after ethernet collisions, partitionings for sorting algorithms, and avoiding getting stuck in minimization procedures like simulated annealing.
Here are examples of how some of the basic Mathematica constructs used in the notes in this book work: • Iteration Nest[f, x, 3] ⟶ f[f[f[x]]] NestList[f, x, 3] ⟶ {x, f[x], f[f[x]], f[f[f[x]]]} Fold[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ f[f[x, 1], 2] FoldList[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ {x, f[x, 1], f[f[x, 1], 2]} • Functional operations Function[x, x + k][a] ⟶ a + k (# + k&)[a] ⟶ a + k (r[#1] + s[#2]&)[a, b] ⟶ r[a] + s[b] Map[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a], f[b], f[c]} Apply[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ f[a, b, c] Select[{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, EvenQ] ⟶ {2, 4} MapIndexed[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a, {1}], f[b, {2}], f[c, {3}]} • List manipulation {a, b, c, d} 〚 3 〛 ⟶ c {a, b, c, d} 〚 {2, 4, 3, 2} 〛 ⟶ {b, d, c, b} Take[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {a, b} Drop[{a, b, c, d, e}, -2] ⟶ {a, b, c} Rest[{a, b, c, d}] ⟶ {b, c, d} ReplacePart[{a, b, c, d}, x, 3] ⟶ {a, b, x, d} Length[{a, b, c}] ⟶ 3 Range[5] ⟶ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Table[f[i], {i, 4}] ⟶ {f[1], f[2], f[3], f[4]} Table[f[i, j], {i, 2}, {j, 3}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2], f[1, 3]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2], f[2, 3]}} Array[f, {2, 2}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2]}} Flatten[{{a, b}, {c}, {d, e}}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, e} Flatten[{{a, {b, c}}, {{d}, e}}, 1] ⟶ {a, {b, c}, {d}, e} Partition[{a, b, c, d}, 2, 1] ⟶ {{a, b}, {b, c}, {c, d}} Split[{a, a, a, b, b, a, a}] ⟶ {{a, a, a}, {b, b}, {a, a}} ListConvolve[{a, b}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}] ⟶ {2a + b, 3a + 2b, 4a + 3b, 5a + 4b} Position[{a, b, c, a, a}, a] ⟶ {{1}, {4}, {5}} RotateLeft[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {c, d, e, a, b} Join[{a, b, c}, {d, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, b} Union[{a, a, c, b, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c} • Transformation rules {a, b, c, d} /. b  p ⟶ {a, p, c, d} {f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[a]  p ⟶ {p, f[b], f[c]} {f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[x_]  p[x] ⟶ {p[a], p[b], p[c]} {f[1], f[b], f[2]} /. f[x_Integer]  p[x] ⟶ {p[1], f[b], p[2]} {f[1, 2], f[3], f[4, 5]} /. f[x_, y_]  x + y ⟶ {3, f[3], 9} {f[1], g[2], f[2], g[3]} /. f[1] | g[_]  p ⟶ {p, p, f[2], p} • Numerical functions Quotient[207, 10] ⟶ 20 Mod[207, 10] ⟶ 7 Floor[1.45] ⟶ 1 Ceiling[1.45] ⟶ 2 IntegerDigits[13, 2] ⟶ {1, 1, 0, 1} IntegerDigits[13, 2, 6] ⟶ {0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1} DigitCount[13, 2, 1] ⟶ 3 FromDigits[{1, 1, 0, 1}, 2] ⟶ 13 The Mathematica programs in these notes are formatted in Mathematica StandardForm .
CTToR110[rules_ /; Select[rules, Mod[Length[#], 6] ≠ 0 &]  {}, init_] := Module[{g1, g2, g3, nr = 0, x1, y1, sp}, g1 = Flatten[ Map[If[#1 === {}, {{{2}}}, {{{1, 3, 5 - First[#1]}}, Table[ {4, 5 - # 〚 n 〛 }, {n, 2, Length[#]}]}] &, rules] /. a_Integer  Map[({d[# 〚 1 〛 , # 〚 2 〛 ], s[# 〚 3 〛 ]}) &, Partition[c[a], 3]], 4]; g2 = g1 = MapThread[If[#1 === #2 === {d[22, 11], s3}, {d[ 20, 8], s3}, #1] &, {g1, RotateRight[g1, 6]}]; While[Mod[ Apply[Plus, Map[# 〚 1, 2 〛 &, g2, 30] ≠ 0, nr++; g2 = Join[ g2, g1]]; y1 = g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 - 11; If[y1 < 0, y1 += 30]; Cases[ Last[g2] 〚 2 〛 , s[d[x_, y1], _, _, a_]  (x1 = x + Length[a])]; g3 = Fold[sadd, {d[x1, y1], {}}, g2]; sp = Ceiling[5 Length[ g3 〚 2 〛 ]/(28 nr) + 2]; {Join[Fold[sadd, {d[17, 1], {}}, Flatten[Table[{{d[sp 28 + 6, 1], s[5]}, {d[398, 1], s[5]}, { d[342, 1], s[5]}, {d[370, 1], s[5]}}, {3}], 1]] 〚 2 〛 , bg[ 4, 11]], Flatten[Join[Table[bgi, {sp 2 + 1 + 24 Length[init]}], init /. {0  init0, 1  init1}, bg[1, 9], bg[6, 60 - g2 〚 1, 1, 1 〛 + g3 〚 1, 1 〛 + If[g2 〚 1, 1, 2 〛 < g3 〚 1, 2 〛 , 8, 0]]]], g3 〚 2 〛 }] s[1] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4, 8}, 2]; s[2] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 1, 619, 15}, 2]; s[3] = struct[{3, 0, 1, 10, 4956, 18}, 2]; s[4] = struct[{0, 0, 9, 10, 4, 8}]; s[5] = struct[{5, 0, 9, 14, 1, 1}]; {c[1], c[2]} = Map[Join[{22, 11, 3, 39, 3, 1}, #] &, {{63, 12, 2, 48, 5, 4, 29, 26, 4, 43, 26, 4, 23, 3, 4, 47, 4, 4}, {87, 6, 2, 32, 2, 4, 13, 23, 4, 27, 16, 4}}]; {c[3], c[4], c[5]} = Map[Join[#, {4, 17, 22, 4, 39, 27, 4, 47, 4, 4}] &, {{17, 22, 4, 23, 24, 4, 31, 29}, {17, 22, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}, {41, 16, 4, 47, 18, 4, 15, 19}}] {init0, init1} = Map[IntegerDigits[216 (# + 432 10 49 ), 2] &, {246005560154658471735510051750569922628065067661, 1043746165489466852897089830441756550889834709645}] bgi = IntegerDigits[9976, 2] bg[s_, n_] := Array[bgi 〚 1 + Mod[# - 1, 14] 〛 &, n, s] ev[s[d[x_, y_], pl_, pr_, b_]] := Module[{r, pl1, pr1}, r = Sign[BitAnd[2^ListConvolve[{1, 2, 4}, Join[bg[pl - 2, 2], b, bg[pr, 2]]], 110]]; pl1 = (Position[r - bg[pl + 3, Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{Length[r]}}) 〚 1, 1 〛 ; pr1 = Max[pl1, (Position[r - bg[pr + 5 - Length[r], Length[r]], 1 | -1] /. {}  {{1}}) 〚 -1, 1 〛 ]; s[d[x + pl1 - 2, y + 1], pl1 + Mod[pl + 2, 14], 1 + Mod[pr + 4, 14] + pr1 - Length[r], Take[r, {pl1, pr1}]]] struct[{x_, y_, pl_, pr_, b_, bl_}, p_Integer : 1] := Module[ {gr = s[d[x, y], pl, pr, IntegerDigits[b, 2, bl]], p2 = p + 1}, Drop[NestWhile[Append[#, ev[Last[#]]] &, {gr}, If[Rest[Last[#]] === Rest[gr], p2--]; p2 > 0 &], -1]] sadd[{d[x_, y_], b_}, {d[dx_, dy_], st_}] := Module[{x1 = dx - x, y1 = dy - y, b2, x2, y2}, While[y1 > 0, {x1, y1} += If[Length[st]  30, {8, -30}, {-2, -3}]]; b2 = First[Cases[st, s[d[x3_, -y1], pl_, _, sb_]  Join[bg[pl - x1 - x3, x1 + x3], x2 = x3 + Length[sb]; y2 = -y1; sb]]]; {d[x2, y2], Join[b, b2]}] CTToR110[{{}}, {1}] yields blocks of lengths {7204, 1873, 7088} .
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