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Every point in the pattern must correspond to some list of left and right branchings, represented by 0's and 1's respectively; in terms of this list the position of the point is given by Fold[1 + {c, Conjugate[c]} 〚 1 + #2 〛 #1&, 1, Reverse[list]] .

Note that as on page 1007 packings can be constructed in which the sizes of circles vary smoothly with position according to a harmonic function.

It also has a polar plot of the positions of 14 pulsars relative to the Sun, with the pulsars specified by giving their periods as base 2 integers—but with trailing zeros inserted to cover inadequate precision.

As early as 1851, for example, Eugène Prouhet showed that if sequences of integers were partitioned according to sequence (b) on page 83 , then sums of powers of these integers would be equal: thus Apply[Plus, Flatten[Position[s, i]] k ] is equal for i = 0 and i = 1 if s is a sequence of the form (b) on page 83 with length 2 m , m > k .

Quantum effects
Over the years, many suggested effects have been thought to be characteristic of quantum systems:
• Basic quantization (1913): mechanical properties of particles in effectively bounded systems are discrete;
• Wave-particle duality (1923): objects like electrons and photons can be described as either waves or particles;
• Spin (1925): particles can have intrinsic angular momentum even if they are of zero size;
• Non-commuting measurements (1926): one can get different results doing measurements in different orders;
• Complex amplitudes (1926): processes are described by complex probability amplitudes;
• Probabilism (1926): outcomes are random, though probabilities for them can be computed;
• Amplitude superposition (1926): there is a linear superposition principle for probability amplitudes;
• State superposition (1926): quantum systems can occur in superpositions of measurable states;
• Exclusion principle (1926): amplitudes cancel for fermions like electrons to go in the same state;
• Interference (1927): probability amplitudes for particles can interfere, potentially destructively;
• Uncertainty principle (1927): quantities like position and momenta have related measurement uncertainties;
• Hilbert space (1927): states of systems are represented by vectors of amplitudes rather than individual variables;
• Field quantization (1927): only discrete numbers of any particular kind of particle can in effect ever exist;
• Quantum tunnelling (1928): particles have amplitudes to go where no classical motion would take them;
• Virtual particles (1932): particles can occur for short times without their usual energy-momentum relation;
• Spinors (1930s): fermions show rotational invariance under SU(2) rather than SO(3);
• Entanglement (1935): separated parts of a system often inevitably behave in irreducibly correlated ways;
• Quantum logic (1936): relations between events do not follow ordinary laws of logic;
• Path integrals (1941): probabilities for behavior are obtained by summing contributions from many paths;
• Imaginary time (1947): statistical mechanics is like quantum mechanics in imaginary time;
• Vacuum fluctuations (1948): there are continual random field fluctuations even in the vacuum;
• Aharonov–Bohm effect (1959): magnetic fields can affect particles even in regions where they have zero strength;
• Bell's inequalities (1964): correlations between events can be larger than in any ordinary probabilistic system;
• Anomalies (1969): virtual particles can have effects that violate the original symmetries of a system;
• Delayed choice experiments (1978): whether particle or wave features are seen can be determined after an event;
• Quantum computing (1980s): there is the potential for fundamental parallelism in computations.

Both approaches achieved some success, but by the 1930s many of their positions had become quite extreme, and the identification of phenomena to contradict every simple conclusion reached led increasingly to the view that human thinking would allow no simple explanations.

In the C program, this is implemented by explicitly copying the value of the leftmost cell to the rightmost position in the array, and vice versa, before updating the values in the array.

Here are examples of how some of the basic Mathematica constructs used in the notes in this book work:
• Iteration
Nest[f, x, 3] ⟶ f[f[f[x]]]
NestList[f, x, 3] ⟶ {x, f[x], f[f[x]], f[f[f[x]]]}
Fold[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ f[f[x, 1], 2]
FoldList[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ {x, f[x, 1], f[f[x, 1], 2]}
• Functional operations
Function[x, x + k][a] ⟶ a + k
(# + k&)[a] ⟶ a + k
(r[#1] + s[#2]&)[a, b] ⟶ r[a] + s[b]
Map[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a], f[b], f[c]}
Apply[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ f[a, b, c]
Select[{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, EvenQ] ⟶ {2, 4}
MapIndexed[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a, {1}], f[b, {2}], f[c, {3}]}
• List manipulation
{a, b, c, d} 〚 3 〛 ⟶ c
{a, b, c, d} 〚 {2, 4, 3, 2} 〛 ⟶ {b, d, c, b}
Take[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {a, b}
Drop[{a, b, c, d, e}, -2] ⟶ {a, b, c}
Rest[{a, b, c, d}] ⟶ {b, c, d}
ReplacePart[{a, b, c, d}, x, 3] ⟶ {a, b, x, d}
Length[{a, b, c}] ⟶ 3
Range[5] ⟶ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
Table[f[i], {i, 4}] ⟶ {f[1], f[2], f[3], f[4]}
Table[f[i, j], {i, 2}, {j, 3}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2], f[1, 3]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2], f[2, 3]}}
Array[f, {2, 2}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2]}}
Flatten[{{a, b}, {c}, {d, e}}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, e}
Flatten[{{a, {b, c}}, {{d}, e}}, 1] ⟶ {a, {b, c}, {d}, e}
Partition[{a, b, c, d}, 2, 1] ⟶ {{a, b}, {b, c}, {c, d}}
Split[{a, a, a, b, b, a, a}] ⟶ {{a, a, a}, {b, b}, {a, a}}
ListConvolve[{a, b}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}] ⟶ {2a + b, 3a + 2b, 4a + 3b, 5a + 4b}
Position[{a, b, c, a, a}, a] ⟶ {{1}, {4}, {5}}
RotateLeft[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {c, d, e, a, b}
Join[{a, b, c}, {d, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, b}
Union[{a, a, c, b, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c}
• Transformation rules
{a, b, c, d} /. b p ⟶ {a, p, c, d}
{f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[a] p ⟶ {p, f[b], f[c]}
{f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[x_] p[x] ⟶ {p[a], p[b], p[c]}
{f[1], f[b], f[2]} /. f[x_Integer] p[x] ⟶ {p[1], f[b], p[2]}
{f[1, 2], f[3], f[4, 5]} /. f[x_, y_] x + y ⟶ {3, f[3], 9}
{f[1], g[2], f[2], g[3]} /. f[1] | g[_] p ⟶ {p, p, f[2], p}
• Numerical functions
Quotient[207, 10] ⟶ 20
Mod[207, 10] ⟶ 7
Floor[1.45] ⟶ 1
Ceiling[1.45] ⟶ 2
IntegerDigits[13, 2] ⟶ {1, 1, 0, 1}
IntegerDigits[13, 2, 6] ⟶ {0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1}
DigitCount[13, 2, 1] ⟶ 3
FromDigits[{1, 1, 0, 1}, 2] ⟶ 13
The Mathematica programs in these notes are formatted in Mathematica StandardForm .

At each step, this map shifts all the base 2 digits in x one position to the left.

But over the years what has also been important is that I have interacted personally with a great many individuals, and I have been fortunate that my position in science and technology has brought me into contact at one time or another with the leaders of almost every major technical field.