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The collection of all events that will lead to a given set of events (the union of their past light cones) is known as the filter of that set.
One-element-dependence tag systems [emulating TMs] Writing the rule {3, {{0, _, _}  {0, 0}, {1, _, _}  {1, 1, 0, 1}}} from page 895 as {3, {0  {0, 0}, 1  {1, 1, 0, 1}}} the evolution of a tag system that depends only on its first element is obtained from TS1EvolveList[rule_, init_, t_] := NestList[TS1Step[rule, #] &, init, t] TS1Step[{n_, subs_}, {}] = {} TS1Step[{n_, subs_}, list_] := Drop[Join[list, First[list] /. subs], n] Given a Turing machine in the form used on page 888 the following will construct a tag system that emulates it: TMToTS1[rules_] := {2, Union[Flatten[rules /.
MapIndexed[ #1  First[#2] &, Union[Map[# 〚 1, 1 〛 &, #]]] &[ With[{b = Ceiling[Log[2, k]] - 1}, Flatten[Table[ {Table[{Table[{{m, i, n, d}, c}  {{m, Mod[i, 2 n - 1 ], n - 1, d}, Quotient[i, 2 n - 1 ], 1}, {n, 2, b}, {i, 0, 2 n - 1}], Table[{ {m, i, 1, d}, c}  {{m, -1, 1, d}, i, d}, {i, 0, 1}], Table[ {{m, -1, n, d}, c}  {{m, -1, n + 1, d}, c, d}, {n, b - 1}], {{m, -1, b, d}, c}  {{0, 0, m}, c, d}}, {d, -1, 1, 2}], Table[{{i, n, m}, c}  {{ i + 2 n c, n + 1, m}, c, -1}, {n, 0, b - 1}, {i, 0, 2 n - 1}], With[{r = 2 b }, Table[ If[i + r c ≥ k, {}, Cases[rule, ({m, i + r c}  {x_, y_, z_})  {{i, b, m}, c}  {{x, Mod[y, r], b, z}, Quotient[y, r], 1})]], {i, 0, r - 1}]]}, {m, s}, {c, 0, 1}]]]] Some of these states are usually unnecessary, and in the main text such states have been pruned.
Given an original DNF list s , this can be done using PI[s, n] : PI[s_, n_] := Union[Flatten[ FixedPointList[f[Last[#], n] &, {{}, s}] 〚 All, 1 〛 , 1]] g[a_, b_] := With[{i = Position[Transpose[{a, b}], {0,1}]}, If[Length[i]  1 && Delete[a, i] === Delete[b, i], {ReplacePart[a, _, i]}, {}]] f[s_, n_] := With[ {w = Flatten[Apply[Outer[g, #1, #2, 1] &, Partition[Table[ Select[s, Count[#, 1]  i &], {i, 0, n}], 2, 1], {1}], 3]}, {Complement[s, w, SameTest  MatchQ], w}] The minimal DNF then consists of a collection of these prime implicants.
Here are examples of how some of the basic Mathematica constructs used in the notes in this book work: • Iteration Nest[f, x, 3] ⟶ f[f[f[x]]] NestList[f, x, 3] ⟶ {x, f[x], f[f[x]], f[f[f[x]]]} Fold[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ f[f[x, 1], 2] FoldList[f, x, {1, 2}] ⟶ {x, f[x, 1], f[f[x, 1], 2]} • Functional operations Function[x, x + k][a] ⟶ a + k (# + k&)[a] ⟶ a + k (r[#1] + s[#2]&)[a, b] ⟶ r[a] + s[b] Map[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a], f[b], f[c]} Apply[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ f[a, b, c] Select[{1, 2, 3, 4, 5}, EvenQ] ⟶ {2, 4} MapIndexed[f, {a, b, c}] ⟶ {f[a, {1}], f[b, {2}], f[c, {3}]} • List manipulation {a, b, c, d} 〚 3 〛 ⟶ c {a, b, c, d} 〚 {2, 4, 3, 2} 〛 ⟶ {b, d, c, b} Take[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {a, b} Drop[{a, b, c, d, e}, -2] ⟶ {a, b, c} Rest[{a, b, c, d}] ⟶ {b, c, d} ReplacePart[{a, b, c, d}, x, 3] ⟶ {a, b, x, d} Length[{a, b, c}] ⟶ 3 Range[5] ⟶ {1, 2, 3, 4, 5} Table[f[i], {i, 4}] ⟶ {f[1], f[2], f[3], f[4]} Table[f[i, j], {i, 2}, {j, 3}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2], f[1, 3]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2], f[2, 3]}} Array[f, {2, 2}] ⟶ {{f[1, 1], f[1, 2]}, {f[2, 1], f[2, 2]}} Flatten[{{a, b}, {c}, {d, e}}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, e} Flatten[{{a, {b, c}}, {{d}, e}}, 1] ⟶ {a, {b, c}, {d}, e} Partition[{a, b, c, d}, 2, 1] ⟶ {{a, b}, {b, c}, {c, d}} Split[{a, a, a, b, b, a, a}] ⟶ {{a, a, a}, {b, b}, {a, a}} ListConvolve[{a, b}, {1, 2, 3, 4, 5}] ⟶ {2a + b, 3a + 2b, 4a + 3b, 5a + 4b} Position[{a, b, c, a, a}, a] ⟶ {{1}, {4}, {5}} RotateLeft[{a, b, c, d, e}, 2] ⟶ {c, d, e, a, b} Join[{a, b, c}, {d, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c, d, b} Union[{a, a, c, b, b}] ⟶ {a, b, c} • Transformation rules {a, b, c, d} /. b  p ⟶ {a, p, c, d} {f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[a]  p ⟶ {p, f[b], f[c]} {f[a], f[b], f[c]} /. f[x_]  p[x] ⟶ {p[a], p[b], p[c]} {f[1], f[b], f[2]} /. f[x_Integer]  p[x] ⟶ {p[1], f[b], p[2]} {f[1, 2], f[3], f[4, 5]} /. f[x_, y_]  x + y ⟶ {3, f[3], 9} {f[1], g[2], f[2], g[3]} /. f[1] | g[_]  p ⟶ {p, p, f[2], p} • Numerical functions Quotient[207, 10] ⟶ 20 Mod[207, 10] ⟶ 7 Floor[1.45] ⟶ 1 Ceiling[1.45] ⟶ 2 IntegerDigits[13, 2] ⟶ {1, 1, 0, 1} IntegerDigits[13, 2, 6] ⟶ {0, 0, 1, 1, 0, 1} DigitCount[13, 2, 1] ⟶ 3 FromDigits[{1, 1, 0, 1}, 2] ⟶ 13 The Mathematica programs in these notes are formatted in Mathematica StandardForm .
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