# Index of Names

Ackermann, Wilhelm (Germany, 1896–1962)

and Ackermann functions, 906

Aiken, Howard H. (USA, 1900–1973)

and Mark I computer, 1107

Albertus Magnus (Germany, ~1200–1280)

and mathematics in science, 859

Alder, Berni J. (USA, 1925– )

and inspirational book cover, 864

and molecular dynamics, 879, 999

in Preface, xiii

Alekseev, Vladimir M. (Russia, 1932–1980)

and 3-body problem, 973

Alexander, James W. (USA, 1888–1971)

and moves on networks, 1038

Ammann, Robert (USA, 1946–1994)

and nested tilings, 942

Anaxagoras (Greece, ~500 – ~428 BC)

and purpose in nature, 1185

Apollonius (Turkey/Egypt, ~262 BC – ~190 BC)

and circle packing, 986

Aquinas, Thomas (Italy, 1225–1274)

and argument by design, 861

Archimedes (Sicily, 287–212 BC)

and pi, 911

and use of mathematics, 859

Aristotle (Greece, 384–322 BC)

and complexity, 861

and definition of life, 1178

and embryology, 1010

and gnomons, 1008

and history of logic, 1099

and logic in science, 860

and nature of space, 1028

and origins of randomness, 967

and purpose in nature, 1185

and theoretical biology, 1003

Atanasoff, John V. (USA, 1903–1995)

and early electronic computers, 1107

Augustine (Algeria, 354–430 AD)

and free will, 1135

Axelrod, Robert M. (USA, 1943– )

and prisoner's dilemma, 1104

Babbage, Charles (England, 1791–1871)

and computers, 1107

and universality, 1110

Bachelier, Louis (France, 1870–1946)

and randomness in markets, 1014

Backus, John (USA, 1924– )

and computer languages, 1104

Bacon, Roger (England, ~1219 – ~1292)

and math in science, 859

Bak, Per (Denmark/USA, 1947–[2002])

and self-organized criticality, 989

Baker, Alan (England, 1939– )

and Diophantine equations, 1164

Banks, E. Roger (USA, 1944– )

and 1D universal CA, 1115

and 2D universal CA, 1117

Barnsley, Michael F. (England/USA, 1946– )

and parameter space sets, 1006

and pictures of ferns, 1005

Batcher, Kenneth E. (USA, 1935– )

and sorting networks, 1142

Bays, Carter (USA, 1940– )

and 3D class 4 CAs, 949

Beeler, Michael D. (USA, 1944– )

and 2D Turing machines, 930

Bell, Alexander Graham (USA, 1847–1922)

and speech sounds, 1080

Bell, David I. (USA/Australia, 1953– )

and structures in Life, 965

Bell, John S. (England/Switzerland, 1928–1990)

and quantum mechanics, 1058

Belousov, Boris P. (Russia, 1893–1970)

and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013

Bendix, Peter B. (USA, 1946– )

and Knuth-Bendix procedure, 1037

Benford, Frank (USA, 1883–1948)

and leading digits, 914

Bennett, Charles H. (USA, 1943– )

and logical depth, 1069

in Preface, xiii

and reversibility of computation, 1020

and sphere packing, 985

Bentley, Wilson A. (USA, 1865–1931)

and snowflakes, 992

Berger, Robert (USA, 1938– )

and non-periodic tilings, 943

and undecidability in tiling, 1139

Berlekamp, Elwyn R. (USA, 1940– )

and Berlekamp-Massey algorithm, 1087

Bernoulli, Daniel (Netherlands/Switzerland, 1700–1782)

and molecular theory of gases, 1019

Birkhoff, Garrett (USA, 1911–1996)

and equational logic, 1172

Black, Fischer (USA, 1938–1995)

and options pricing, 1015

Blum, Lenore C. (USA, 1942– )

in Preface, xiii

and random generators, 1090

Blum, Manuel (USA, 1938– )

in Preface, xiii

and random generators, 1090

Bobrow, Daniel G. (USA, 1935– )

and simple Turing machines, 1143

Bohm, David J. (USA/England, 1917–1992)

and discreteness of space, 1027

and hidden variables, 1058

Bohr, Niels H. D. (Denmark, 1885–1962)

and quantum theory, 1056

Boltzmann, Ludwig E. (Austria, 1844–1906)

and statistical mechanics, 1019

Boole, George (England/Ireland, 1815–1864)

and axioms for logic, 1151

and Boolean functions, 1097

and continuous logic, 1175

and model for thought, 1099

Boone, William W. (USA, 1920–1983)

and word problem for groups, 1141

Borel, F. E. J. Emile (France, 1871–1956)

and defining randomness, 1068

and normal numbers, 912

Brady, Allen H. (USA, 1934– )

and 2D Turing machines, 930

Bravais, Auguste (France, 1811–1863)

and phyllotaxis, 1007

Bravais, Louis F. (France, 1801–1843)

and phyllotaxis, 1007

Bray, William C. (USA, 1879–1946)

and oscillatory chemical reactions, 1013

Broadwell, James E. (USA, 1921– )

and CA fluids, 999

Broglie, Louis-V.-P.-R. de (France, 1892–1987)

and wave-particle duality, 1056

Brouwer, Luitzen E. J. (Netherlands, 1881–1966)

and character of math, 1176

Bruns, E. Heinrich (Germany, 1848–1919)

and three-body problem, 972

Buch, Arnim (Germany, 1969– )

and automated proofs, 1158

Buchberger, Bruno (Austria, 1942– )

and Gröbner basis approach, 1037

in Preface, xiii

Buntrock, Jürgen (Germany, 1958–)

and long-running TMs, 889

Burks, Arthur W. (USA, 1915–2008(added after book publication))

and cellular automata, 876

in Preface, xiii

Bush, Vannevar (USA, 1890–1974)

and differential analyzer, 1107

Caesar, Julius (Italy, 100–44 BC)

and cryptography, 1085

Campbell, John H. (USA, 1938– )

and patterns on shells, 1012

in Preface, xiii

Cantor, Georg F. L. P. (Germany, 1845–1918)

and Cantor set, 893

and the continuum, 1127

and definition of dimension, 1030

and diagonal arguments, 1128

and digit sequences, 902

and history of numbers, 901

and real numbers, 1153

and set theory, 1154

and transfinite numbers, 1162

Carnot, Sadi N. L. (France, 1796–1832)

and thermodynamics, 1019

Cartwright, Mary L. (England, 1900–1998)

and chaos theory, 971

Casimir, Hendrik B. G. (Netherlands, 1909–2000)

and electron model, 1044

Catalan, Eugène C. (Belgium, 1814–1894)

and iterated aliquot sums, 911

Cayley, Arthur (England, 1821–1895)

and group theory, 1153

and iterated maps, 918

Chaitin, Gregory J. (USA/Argentina, 1947– )

and algorithmic randomness, 1068

and experimental math, 899

in Preface, xiii

and randomness in arithmetic, 1067

and universal objects, 1127

Champernowne, David G. (England, 1912–2000)

and normal numbers, 912

Chaté, Hugues (France, 1961– )

and CA classes, 948

and continuous CAs, 922

Chomsky, Noam (USA, 1928– )

and generative grammars, 939

and models of language, 1104

and universals in language, 1181

Church, Alonzo (USA, 1903–1995)

and Church's Thesis, 1125

and defining randomness, 1068

and lambda calculus, 1121

and models of computation, 879

and number combinators, 1122

and origins of universality, 1110

and undecidability, 1136

Cicero, M. Tullius (Italy, 106–43 BC)

and free will, 1135

Clausius, Rudolf J. E. (Germany, 1822–1888)

and thermodynamics, 1019

Cocconi, Giuseppe (Italy/USA/Switzerland, 1914–2008(added after book publication))

and SETI, 1189

Codd, Edgar F. (USA, 1923–[2003])

and universal CAs, 1117

Cohen, Paul J. (USA, 1934–2007(added after book publication))

and continuum hypothesis, 1155

Conway, John H. (England/USA, 1937– )

and arithmetic recurrences, 1115

and Game of Life, 877, 880, 949

and iterated run-length encoding, 905

and non-periodic tilings, 943

in Preface, xiii

and recursive sequences, 907

and universality of Life, 1117

Cook, Matthew (USA, 1970– )

and cyclic tag systems, 895

and polyomino tiling, 943

in Preface, xii

and rule 110, 1115

Cook, Stephen A. (USA/Canada, 1939– )

and NP completeness, 1143

Cosmas (Italy, ~1210 – ~1235)

and mosaic patterns, 873

Cowe, Russell J. (UK, 1946– )

and shell patterns, 1012

Crutchfield, James P. (USA, 1955– )

and Markov models, 1084

in Preface, xiii

Curry, Haskell B. (USA, 1900–1982)

and combinators, 898

da Vinci, Leonardo (Italy, 1452–1519)

and fluid turbulence, 997

and geometrical rules, 878

and math in science, 859

and phyllotaxis, 1007

and rule-based pictures, 875

and theory of lunes, 873

Dante Alighieri (Italy, 1265–1321)

and rhyming schemes, 875

Darwin, Charles R. (England, 1809–1882)

and Origin of Species, 1001

and origins of complexity, 861, 861'

Davis, H. Chandler (USA/Canada, 1926– )

and dragon curves, 893

Davis, Martin D. (USA, 1928– )

and Diophantine equations, 1161

in Preface, xiii

de Broglie, Louis-V.-P.-R. (France, 1892–1987)

and wave-particle duality, 1056

de Bruijn, Nicolaas G. (Netherlands, 1918– )

and maximal sequences, 1089

de Moivre, Abraham (France/England, 1667–1754)

and Gaussian distribution, 977

Dedekind, J. W. Richard (Germany, 1831–1916)

and axioms for arithmetic, 1152

and categoricity of models, 1172

and primitive recursion, 907

and real numbers, 1153

Dehn, Max W. (Germany, 1878–1952)

and word problem for groups, 1141

Democritus (Greece, ~460 – ~370 BC)

and atomism, 876

and extraterrestrial life, 1180

Descartes, René (France/Netherlands, 1596–1650)

and complexity in biology, 861

and discrete space, 1027

and equiangular spirals, 1008

and snowflakes, 992

and sums of three squares, 910

and theoretical biology, 1003

and Turing test, 1099

Deutsch, David (England, 1953– )

in Preface, xiii

and quantum computers, 1147

Diffie, Whitfield (USA, 1944– )

and cryptography, 1089

in Preface, xiii

Diophantus (Egypt, ~246 – ~330 AD)

and Diophantine equations, 944

Dirac, Paul A. M. (England, 1902–1984)

and history of quantum mechanics, 1056

Drake, Frank D. (USA, 1930– )

and SETI, 1189

Drexler, K. Eric (USA, 1955– )

and nanotechnology, 1193

Duhem, Pierre M. M. (France, 1861–1916)

and chaos theory, 971

Dürer, Albrecht (Germany, 1471–1528)

and parametrizing growth, 1010

Eddington, Arthur S. (England, 1882–1944)

and models of the universe, 1025

Eden, Murray (USA, 1920– )

and aggregation systems, 978

Edgerton, Harold E. (USA, 1903–1990)

and splashes, 1000

Edison, Thomas A. (USA, 1847–1931)

and searching for materials, 1193

Ehrlich, Paul (Germany, 1854–1915)

and chemotherapy, 1193

Einstein, Albert (Germany/Switzerland/USA, 1879–1955)

and EPR experiment, 1058

and general relativity, 1047

and math in science, 860

and particles as gravity, 1054

and quantum theory, 1056

and special relativity, 1041

and unified field theory, 1028

Elkies, Noam D. (USA, 1966– )

and nearby powers, 1166

in Preface, xiii

Epicurus (Greece, 341–270 BC)

and randomness, 967

Eratosthenes (Egypt, 276–195 BC)

and prime sieve, 909, 909'

Ermentrout, G. Bard (USA, 1954– )

and patterns on shells, 1012

Escher, Maurits C. (Netherlands, 1898–1972)

and ornamental art, 874

Euclid (?Egypt, ~300 BC)

and axioms for geometry, 1154

and foundations of math, 1149

and math in science, 859

and mathematical induction, 1152

and nature of space, 1028

and perfect numbers, 911

and primes, 909

theorem network of, 1176

and theory of lunes, 873

Euler, Leonhard (Switzerland/Russia/Germany, 1707–1783)

and continued fractions, 914, 915

and a cubic Diophantine equation, 1165

and differential geometry, 1009

and equations for geodesics, 1049

and Fermat's Last Theorem, 1166

and number theory, 878

and perfect numbers, 911

and primes, 909