Other examples [of substitution systems]

(a) *(Period-doubling sequence)* After t steps, there are a total of 2^{t} elements, and the sequence is given by Nest[MapAt[1 - # &, Join[#, #], -1]&, {0}, t]. It contains a total of Round[2^{t}/3] black elements, and if the last element is dropped, it forms a palindrome. The n^{th} element is given by Mod[IntegerExponent[n, 2], 2]. As discussed on page 885, the sequence appears in a vertical column of cellular automaton rule 150. The Thue–Morse sequence discussed on page 890 can be obtained from it by applying

1 - Mod[Flatten[Partition[FoldList[Plus, 0, list], 1, 2]], 2]

(b) The n^{th} element is simply Mod[n, 2].

(c) Same as (a), after the replacement 1 {1, 1} in each sequence. Note that the spectra of (a) and (c) are nevertheless different, as discussed on page 1080.

(d) The length of the sequence at step t satisfies a[t] 2a[t - 1] + a[t - 2], so that a[t] = Round[(1 + √2)^{t - 1}/2] for t > 1. The number of white elements at step t is then Round[a[t]/√2]. Much like example (c) on page 83 there are m + 1 distinct blocks of length m, and with f = Floor[(1 - 1/√2)(# + 1/√2)] & the n^{th} element of the sequence is given by f[n + 1] - f[n] (see page 903).

(e) For large t the number of elements increases like λ^{t} with λ = (√13 + 1)/2; there are always λ times as many white elements as black ones.

(f) The number of elements at step t is Round[(1 + √2)^{t}/2], and the n^{th} element is given by Floor[√2 (n + 1)] - Floor[√2 n] (see page 903).

(g) The number of elements is the same as in (f).

(h) The number of black elements is 2^{t - 1}; the total number of elements is 2^{t - 2} (t + 1).

(i) and (j) The total number of elements is 3^{t - 1}.