Chapter 3: The World of Simple Programs

Section 7: Tag Systems

Randomness [in tag systems]

To get some idea of the randomness of the behavior, one can look at the sequence of first elements produced on successive steps. In case (a), the fraction of black elements fluctuates around 1/2; in (b) it approaches 3/4; in (d) it fluctuates around near 0.3548, while in (e) and (f) it does not appear to stabilize.

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]