much as possible. And so at first I looked only at the 32 rules which had left-right symmetry and made blank backgrounds stay unchanged.

Among these rules I found examples of repetition and nesting. And with random initial conditions, I found more complicated behavior. But since I did not expect that any complicated behavior would be possible with simple initial conditions, I did not try looking at other rules in an attempt to find it. Nevertheless, as it happens, the first paper that I published about cellular automata—in 1983—did in fact include a picture of rule 30 from page 27, as an example of a non-symmetric rule. But the picture showed only 20 steps of evolution, and at the time I did not look carefully at it, and certainly did not appreciate its significance.

For several years, I did progressively more sophisticated computer experiments on cellular automata, and in the process I managed to elucidate many of their properties. But finally, when technology had advanced to the point where it became almost trivial for me to do so, I went back and generated some straightforward pages of pictures of all 256 elementary rules evolving from simple initial conditions. And it was upon seeing these pictures that I finally began to appreciate the remarkable phenomenon that occurs in systems like rule 30.

Seven years later, after I had absorbed some basic intuition from looking at cellular automata like rule 30, I resolved to find out whether similar phenomena also occurred in other kinds of systems. And the first such systems that I investigated were mobile automata.

Mobile automata in a sense evolve very slowly relative to cellular automata, so to make more efficient pictures I came up with a scheme for showing their evolution in compressed form. I then started off by generating pictures of the first hundred, then the first thousand, then the first ten thousand, mobile automata. But in all of these pictures I found nothing beyond repetitive and nested behavior.

Yet being convinced that more complicated behavior must be possible, I decided to persist, and so I wrote a program that would automatically search through large numbers of mobile automata. I set up various criteria for the search, based on how I expected mobile automata could behave. And quite soon, I had made the program search a million mobile automata, then ten million.

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From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]