Chapter 11: The Notion of Computation

Section 12: Universality in Turing Machines and Other Systems

 Minsky's [universal] Turing machine History [of universal Turing machines]  Rule 110 Turing machines Rule 60 Turing machines Turing machine enumeration States versus colors [in Turing machines] [Turing] machine 596440 [Universal] tag systems [Methods of] encoding sequences by integers [Universal] register machines [Universal] recursive functions Lambda calculus Combinators Combinator properties Single [universal] combinators  Cellular automaton combinators Testing universality [in symbolic systems] Criteria for universality [Universality for] classes of systems

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]