Chapter 7: Mechanisms in Programs and Nature

Section 8: The Problem of Satisfying Constraints

Rules versus constraints NP completeness [and constraint satisfaction] Distribution [of constraint satisfaction] Implementation [of constraint satisfaction] Iterative improvement [of constraint satisfaction] Gradient descent [in constraint satisfaction] Combinatorial optimization Biologically motivated schemes [for combinatorial optimization] History [of combinatorial optimization] [Invariance examples in] 2D cellular automata Circle packings Sphere packings [Sphere packings in] higher dimensions Discrete packings Voronoi diagrams Discrete Voronoi diagrams Brillouin zones Packing deformable objects Protein folding

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]