Examples of cellular automata that emulate substitution systems. The successive steps in the evolution of each substitution system are obtained at the points indicated by arrows. Note that the sequences of elements generated by the cellular automata are aligned at the right, while in the pictures of the substitution systems shown they are aligned at the left. The rules for the three cellular automata involve only nearest neighbors, and allow 12 possible colors for each cell.

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From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]