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Cycles and zeta functions The number of sequences of n cells that can occur repeatedly, corresponding to cycles in the network, is given in terms of the adjacency matrix m by Tr[MatrixPower[m,n]] . These numbers can also be obtained as the coefficients of x n in the series expansion of x ∂ x Log[ ζ [m, x]] , with the so-called zeta function, which is always a rational function of x , given by ζ [m_, x_] := 1/Det[IdentityMatrix[Length[m]] - m x] and corresponds to the product over all cycles of 1/(1 - x n ) .
Growth rates [in substitution systems] The total number of elements of each color that occur at each step in a neighbor-independent substitution system can be found by forming the matrix m where m 〚 i, j 〛 gives the number of elements of color j + 1 that appear in the block that replaces an element of color i + 1 . … MatrixPower[m, t] , where init gives the initial number of elements of each color— {1, 0} for case (c) above. … For neighbor-independent rules, the growth for large t must follow an exponential or an integer power less than the number of possible colors.
The transitions between these states have probabilities given by m[Map[Length, list]] where m[s_] := With[{q = FoldList[Plus, 0, s]}, ReplacePart[ RotateRight[IdentityMatrix[Last[q]], {0, 1}], 1/Length[s], Flatten[Outer[List, Rest[q], Drop[q, -1] + 1], 1]]] The average spectrum of sequences generated according to these probabilities can be obtained by computing the correlation function for elements a distance r apart ξ [list_, r_] := With[{w = (# - Apply[Plus, #]/Length[#] &)[ Flatten[list]]}, w . MatrixPower[ m[Map[Length, list]], r] . w/Length[w]] then forming Sum[ ξ [Abs[r]] Cos[2 π r ω ], {r, -n/2, n/2}] and taking the limit n  ∞ .
The number of sequences s n of length n that can actually occur is given by Apply[Plus, Flatten[MatrixPower[m, n]]] where the adjacency matrix m is given by MapAt[(1 + #) &, Table[0, {Length[net]}, {Length[net]}], Flatten[MapIndexed[{First[#2], Last[#1]} &, net, {2}], 1]] For rule 32, for example, s n turns out to be Fibonacci[n + 3] , so that for large n it is approximately GoldenRatio n .
Fibonacci[n] can be obtained in many ways: • (GoldenRatio n - (-GoldenRatio) -n )/ √ 5 • Round[GoldenRatio n / √ 5 ] • 2 1 - n Coefficient[(1 + √ 5 ) n , √ 5 ] • MatrixPower[{{1, 1}, {1, 0}}, n - 1] 〚 1, 1 〛 • Numerator[NestList[1/(1 + #)&, 1, n]] • Coefficient[Series[1/(1 - t - t 2 ), {t, 0, n}], t n - 1 ] • Sum[Binomial[n - i - 1, i], {i, 0, (n - 1)/2}] • 2 n - 2 - Count[IntegerDigits[Range[0, 2 n - 2 ], 2], {___, 1, 1, ___}] A fast method for evaluating Fibonacci[n] is First[Fold[f, {1, 0, -1}, Rest[IntegerDigits[n, 2]]]] f[{a_, b_, s_}, 0] = {a (a + 2b), s + a (2a - b), 1} f[{a_, b_, s_}, 1] = {-s + (a + b) (a + 2b), a (a + 2b), -1} Fibonacci numbers appear to have first arisen in perhaps 200 BC in work by Pingala on enumerating possible patterns of poetry formed from syllables of two lengths.
In 1925, however, Werner Heisenberg suggested a new and more general formalism that became known as matrix mechanics. … To find predictions from this theory a so-called perturbation expansion was made, with successive terms representing progressively more interactions, and each having a higher power of the so-called coupling constant α ≃ 1/137 . … So this led in the 1960s to attempts to base theories just on setting up simple mathematical constraints on the overall so-called S matrix defining the mapping from incoming to outgoing quantum states.
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