Chapter 12: The Principle of Computational Equivalence

Section 10: Intelligence in the Universe

Other examples [of minimal systems]

Minimal systems achieving particular purposes are shown on page 619 for Boolean functions evaluated with Nands, pages 759 and 889 for Turing machines, page 1142 for sorting networks, and page 1035 for firing squad synchronization.

Image Source Notebooks:

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]