Chapter 12: The Principle of Computational Equivalence

Section 6: Computational Irreducibility

Intrinsic limits in science

Before computational irreducibility other sources of limits to science that have been discussed include: measurement in quantum mechanics, prediction in chaos theory and singularities in gravitation theory. As it happens, in each of these cases I suspect that the supposed limits are actually just associated with a lack of correct analysis of all elements of the relevant systems. In mathematics, however, more valid intrinsic limits—much closer to computational irreducibility—follow for example from Gödel's Theorem.

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From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]