Chapter 8: Implications for Everyday Systems

Section 1: Issues of Modelling

Uncertainties of this chapter Experiences of modelling Notes on this chapter Material for this chapter Models versus experiments Models versus reality History of modelling Finding models [of systems] Consequences of models Universality in models

Section 2: The Growth of Crystals

Nucleation [of crystals] Implementation [of hexagonal cellular automata] Identical snowflakes History of snowflake studies History of crystal growth Models of crystal growth Hopper crystals Other models [of crystal growth] Polycrystalline materials Quasicrystals Amorphous materials Diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) Boiling

Section 3: The Breaking of Materials

Phenomenology of microscopic fracture Models of microscopic fracture History [of fracture] Experimental data [on fracture] Large-scale fractures Alternate models [of fracture] Electric breakdown Crushing [of solids] Effects of microscopic roughness Crinkling

Section 4: Fluid Flow

Reynolds numbers Navier–Stokes equations Models of turbulence Chaos theory and turbulence Flows past objects 2D fluids Cellular automaton fluids Vorticity-based models History of cellular automaton fluids Computational fluid dynamics Sound waves and shocks Splashes Generalizations of fluid flow Convection Atmospheric turbulence Ocean surfaces Granular materials Geological structures

Section 5: Fundamental Issues in Biology

History [of biological complexity] Attitudes of biologists Genetic programs [in biology] Tricks in [biological] evolution Belief in [biological] optimality Studying natural selection Other models [of mutation] Adaptive value of complexity Genetic algorithms Smooth variables [in biology] [Biological] species Defining life Analogies with thermodynamics Major new features [in biological evolution] Software [system] statistics Proteins

Section 6: Growth of Plants and Animals

History [of theories of biological form] Growth in plants Branching in plants Implementation [of branching model] Mathematical properties [of branching model] Simple geometries [in branching model] History of branching models Leaf shapes Self-limiting growth Parameter space sets Mathematics of phyllotaxis History of phyllotaxis Observed phyllotaxis Projections of [phyllotaxis] patterns Implementation [of phyllotaxis model] Shapes of [biological] cells Symmetries [in biological systems] Locally isotropic growth Branching in animals Antlers [Mollusc] shells [Mollusc] shell model History [of shell models] Discrete folding [in biological growth] Intrinsically defined curves Multidimensional generalizations [of intrinsically defined curves] Embryo development History of embryology Bones General constraints on growth Parametrizations of [biological] growth Schemes for [biological] growth Tumors Pollen Radiolarians [Biological] self-assembly Animal behavior

Section 7: Biological Pigmentation Patterns

Collecting shells Shell patterns Cowries History [of shell patterns] Animals [with patterning] shown Animal coloration Implementation [of patterning model] Features of the [patterning] model Reaction-diffusion processes Scales of patterns [on animals] Excitable media Examples [of reaction-diffusion] in chemistry Maze-like patterns Origins of randomness [in animal patterning]

Section 8: Financial Systems

Laws of human behavior Zipf's law Motion of people and cars Growth of cities Randomness in markets Speculative markets Properties of markets Efficient markets Details of trading Models of markets

From Stephen Wolfram: A New Kind of Science [citation]